In 1681, the most important representative of the Spanish Baroque playwright Pedro Calderon de la Barca dies in Madrid. In 1883 the Brooklyn Bridge in New York is opened.
In the year 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, dies. Among other things, he proved that the Earth is not the centre of the universe.
In 1906 the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen dies. His most important works are Nora, Ghosts, Enemy of the People, The Lady from the Sea.
In 337 the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great dies. He was the first Roman emperor to be converted to Christianity. In 1813 the German composer Wilhelm Richard Wagner is born.
In 1471 in Nuremberg German painter Albrecht Dürer is born. He secured a reputation as one of the most important figures of the Northern Renaissance.
In 1506 the Italian-Spanish seafarer Christopher Columbus dies. In 1609 the London publisher Thomas Thorpe published the first of William Shakespeare’s sonnets.
In 1536, King Henry VIII's second wife, Anne Boleyn, beheaded for adultery. In 1925 the fighter for the civil rights of blacks, Malcolm X, is born.
In 1711 in Dubrovnik, Croatian scientist Rudjer Josip Boskovic is born. He produced a precursor of atomic theory and made many contributions to astronomy.
In 1510, in Florence the leading Florentine painter of the early Renaissance Sandro Botticelli dies.
In 1527, the citizens of the city of Florence expelled the Medici family; the city was declared a republic.